We must take the time to say how much we deeply appreciate all the work that has been done professionally in
the field of herpetology. Without the information learned by the various field guides, herpetology books, and
websites listed below our website would be nothing more than a picture blog. We feel it necessary not only to
cite our sources, but to endorse them as well. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and
Amphibians has been our trusted friend for over 25 years. Owning Alan St. John's Reptiles of the Northwest
should be mandatory if you are a field herper in the area. Robert C. Stebbins' Peterson Field Guide to Western
Reptiles and Amphibians (3rd ed.) comes strongly recommended; the information is very detailed and up to
date. There are however a plethora of books and articles out there that will make excellent additions to your
Much of the information regarding species nomenclature, characteristics differentiating species and
subspecies, and their specific ranges and habitats has been taken to heart by reading the following
publications. The list is numerical rather than alphabetical. The numbers refer to the succession of
publications used during the page developments of this website. "The Big Three" field guides of North American
herpetology include Audubon's, Stebbins' Peterson, and Conant and Collins' 'Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles
and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America (3rd ed. - expanded). Here in Northwestern California
however, the Conant guide doesn't immediately apply until you begin exploring the similarities found between
western, central, and eastern species and/or subspecies.
Northwest California's "Big Three" (okay, Four!) are:
1. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians by John L. Behler and F.
Wayne King. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, c. 1979. 719 p.
2. Reptiles of the Northwest by Alan St. John. Lone Pine Publishing, Renton, WA. c. 2002. 272 p.
3. Peterson Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians (3rd ed.) by Robert C. Stebbins. Houghton Mifflin
Co., New York, NY. c. 2003. 533 p.
We use these three religiously! Unfortunately one of the guides excludes amphibians, so we would like to do
some additional cross-referencing when we start on the amphibian pages.
As this website evolves the cited sources list will as well.
4. Pine Snakes by W. P. Mara. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ. c. 1994. 63 p.
5. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians (2nd ed.) by Dr. Harold G. Cogger and Dr. Richard G. Zweifel. Fog
City Press, San Francisco, CA. c. 1992 / (2nd ed.- Weldon Owen Pty Limited c. 1998 / 2003) 240 p.
6. Amphibians of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia (Revised) by Charlotte C. Corkran and Chris
Thoms. Lone Pine Publishing, Auburn, WA. c. 2006. 176 p.
We have decided that book #6 was the way to go for a missing amphibians guide. Most of our listed
California species overlap into Oregon; and this particular book is an excellent resource for
7. Rattlesnakes: Their Habits, Life Histories and Influence on Mankind - Vol. 1 (2nd ed.) by Laurence M.
Klauber. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA. c. 1972. 740 p.
Books - Specific
Articles - Specific
Websites - Specific
Web1. www.embl-heidelberg.de/~uetz/LivingReptiles.html (European Molecular Biology Laboratory
- Heidelberg, Germany)
Web2. www.animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology)
Web3. www.sdnhm.org (San Diego Natural History Museum)
Web4. www.pinesnake.de (Excellent Pituophis site from Germany!)
Web5. www.itis.gov (Integrated Taxonomic Information System)
Web6. www.dfg.ca.gov (California Department of Fish and Game)
Web7. www.californiaherps.com (excellent reference site for western species)
Web8. http://www.spiritone.com/~brucem/index.htm. (Dr. Bruce G. Marcot, PhD - "The Plexus")
Web9. http://www.amphibian.co.uk/ (Marc Staniszewski's Amphibian Information Center)
Web10. http://www.biology.bangor.ac.uk/~bss166/ (Wolfgang Wuester)
Web12. http://www.kingsnake.com/toxinology/ (Dr. Bryan Grieg Fry)
Web14. http://www.cnah.org (The Center for North American Herpetology)
A1. Briggs, Patrick. "Pituophis Parade: The Bull, Gopher, and Pine Snakes", Reptiles Magazine Vol. 9, No. 4.
April 2001. pp. 48-73.
A2. Moon, Brad R. "Muscle Physiology and the Evolution of the Rattling System in Rattlesnakes," Journal of
Herpetology Vol. 35, No. 3. September 2001. pp.497-500.
A3. Rabatsky, Ali M. and Waterman, Jane M. "Ontogenetic Shifts and Sex Differences in Caudal Luring In the
Dusky Pygmy Rattlesnake, Sistrurus Miliarius Barbouri," Herpetologica Vol. 61, No. 2. 2005. pp.87-91.
(Abstract only via Web13)
A4. Ashton, Kyle G. and de Queiroz, Alan. "Molecular Systematics of the Western Rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis
(Viperidae), with comments on the Utility of the D-Loop in Phylogenetic Studies of Snakes," Molecular
Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol. 21, No. 2. Nov 2001. pp. 176-189.
A5. Pook, Catherine E., Wuester, Wolfgang, and Thorpe, Roger S. "Historical Biogeography of the Western
Rattlesnake (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalus viridis), Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Sequence
Information," Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol. 15, No. 2. May 2000. pp. 269-282.